Step 1: In the AD FS server, under Authentication Methods, make sure that Windows Authentication is selected.
Step 2: Run the below powershell query to check if "Chrome" is present in the supported WIA agents:
Get-AdfsProperties | Select -ExpandProperty WIASupportedUserAgents
If Chrome is not present, then the following query can be run to add chrome to the supported user agents.
Set-AdfsProperties -WIASupportedUserAgents ((Get-ADFSProperties | Select -ExpandProperty WIASupportedUserAgents) + "Chrome")
In the client machine (user machine), open Internet Options and add your ADFS URL in Local intranet Sites (or under Trusted Sites if your url is in https)
Click on Custom Level... and under User Authentication -> Logon -> choose Automatic Logon with current username and password
Once these settings are saved, your ADFS will directly use your machine credentials when you are in your intranet and when you're connected to the internet, the following popup will be shown, which still can be used to log in to ADFS.
For Firefox an extra setting is required. Go to about:config and search for trusted-uri where your ADFS machine's fully qualified name needs to be added.
Known Issue with Mobile Apps:
After turning on Windows Authentication, mobile apps may not work as their user agents also get matched for Windows Authentication which fails.
Since the ADFS user agents accept regular expressions, you may write one that skips Android and iOS agents but allows Laptops and PCs.
Here is an example for reference (the =~ shows that it is a regex understood by ADFS):
To set this, you can run the below command in powershell (make sure to take a backup of existing properties)
Set-AdfsProperties -WIASupportedUserAgents "=~^((?!Android|iPhone).)*$"